Textual References In Essays

Harvard is a commonly used method of referencing, which uses the Author-Date system.

 

Which Harvard style?

Note: Harvard has been adapted to suit many different publication styles. The style used in this guide follows the standard prescribed by the following manual:
Snooks & Co. 2002, Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn. John Wiley & Sons, Milton, Qld.This is the official style followed in most Australian Government publications.

 

Which style does my Faculty or School use?

Some Schools require a different style from the one outlined here. Use the citation style  required by your Faculty or School.

 

Why Reference your sources?

It is important to reference the sources you use for essays and reports, so that the reader can follow your arguments and check your sources.  It is essential to correctly acknowledge the author when quoting or using other people’s ideas in your work.

 

How do I use Harvard?

 

 

  1. In-text citations are made like this

 

Paraphrasing and in-text citations

Example
The point made by an analytic philosopher (O'Connor 1969, p. 32) is that values cannot be justified in this way. However Kneller (1963b, p. 102) insists that the theorist will inevitably be involved in value claims. 

 

Note: Page, chapter or section numbers may be included in the in-text citation if the cited work is long and the information helps the reader locate the relevant information.

When the authors name is mentioned in-text (eg. Kneller in the example above) add year and page numbers only to the in-text reference.

Entries that have the same author and year are noted by adding a, b, c etc to the year, both in-text eg. Kneller (1963b, p. 102) and in the Reference List (see entries in Reference List below).

 

Direct quotes and in-text citations 

Examples:
‘Having a solid plan as part of research design is essential’ (Hatch 2002, p. 46).
or
Hatch (2002, p. 46) believes ‘having a solid plan as part of research design is essential.’

 

 Note: Always include page numbers when citing a quotation and enclose the quote in single quotation marks.

 

Block quotes and in-text citations

Example:

Inductive analysis is discussed:
            Inductive thinking proceeds from the specific to the general.  Understandings are generated by starting with specfic
          elements and finding connections among them.  To argue inductively is to begin with particular pieces of evidence,
          then pull them together into a meaningful whole.  Inductive data analysis is a search for patterns of meaningful data so
          the general statements about phenomena under investigation can be made (Hatch 2002, p. 161).

 Note: Place a quotation of 30 or more words in your work as a free standing block.  These quotes are usually indented eg. 5 spaces and are in a smaller font eg. 1 pt smaller than the surrounding text.  Do not enclose the quote in quotation marks.

 

  1. Reference lists, at the end of your paper, are made like this (arrange your list alphabetically by author).


Hatch, JA 2002, Doing qualitative research in education settings. State of , .

Kneller, JP 1963a, Is logical thinking logical? Ponsonby & Partridge, Dubbo.

-----1963b, ‘Thinking and logical interaction’, Brain Logic, vol. 257, no. 4, pp. 54-62.

O'Connor, DJ 1969, An introduction to the philosophy of education, Routledge & Kegan Paul, .

[See the sample Reference list].

Indicating the Relevant Reference in the Text

A number in superscript format, placed in the text of the essay, indicates the relevant reference.

Citations are numbered consecutively in the order in which they appear in the text and each citation corresponds to a numbered reference, containing publication information about the source cited, in the reference list at the end of the publication, essay or assignment.

Once a source has been cited, the same number is used in all subsequent references.

No distinction is made between print and electronic references when citing within the text.

Here are some examples of this kind of referencing :

The largest lesion in the first study was 10 cm.13
The theory was first put forward in 1987.1
Scholtz2 has argued that...
Several recent studies3,4,15,16 have suggested that...
For example, see 7.

It is not necessary to mention either the author(s) or the date of the reference unless it is relevant to your text.

It is not necessary to say "In reference26 ...", "In26 ..." is sufficient.

 

Citing More Than One Reference at a Time

When citing more than one source at a time, the preferred method is to list each reference number separately with a comma or dash (without spaces) between each reference:

1,3,5
1-5
2-5,9,13

Including page numbers

Page number references are rarely included when citing within the text of an assignment or essay when using Vancouver style; however, for quotations or if you wish to be specific regarding the source of information, quotations or statistics, page or figure numbers may be given in the following format:

Westman5(pp3-5),9 reported 8 cases where vomiting occurred.
These patients showed no sign of nausea.3(p21),4
The incidence of the syndrome was rare.12(fig4)

If you want to cite different page numbers from a single reference source at different places in your text, the page numbers are included in the superscript citation and the source appears only once in the list of references. The superscript may include more than one page number, the citation of more than one reference, or both; and all spaces are closed up.

Direct quotations

Direct quotations are rarely, if ever, used in Vancouver Style.

You should include the page number in the superscript in-text citation when directly quoting the exact wording of a source, please see the section above regarding the formatting of page numbers included in citations.

Short direct quotes are enclosed within quotation marks.

For example: "The increasing availability and growth rate of biomedical information, also known as ‘big data’, provides an opportunity for future personalized medicine programs that will significantly improve patient care".1(p433)

Quotes longer than 4 lines should be indented in a block, without quotation marks and in reduced type.

For example:

With the increased need to store data and information generated by big projects, computational solutions, such as cloud-based computing, have emerged. Cloud computing is the only storage model that can provide the elastic scale needed for DNA sequencing, whose rate of technology advancement could now exceed Moore's Law. Moore's law is the observation that, over the history of computing hardware, the number of transistors on integrated circuits and the speed of computers doubles approximately every 2 years. Although cloud solutions from different companies have been used, several challenges remain, particularly related to the security and privacy of personal medical and scientific data.1(p437)

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