Teacher: A. Gresko Date: November 17, 2003
Class: English: Literature and Writing Grade Level: 10th Grade
Unit: Research Papers Lesson: Introduction to Research Papers
PA Academic Standards:
1.5.11A- Write with a sharp, distinct focus. *Identify topic, task, and audience.
1.5.11C-Write with controlled and/or subtle organization. *Sustain a logical order throughout the piece.
1.6.11A-Listen to others *Ask clarifying questions *Synthesize information, ideas, and opinions to determine relevancy. *Take notes.
1.6.11D-Contribute to discussions. *Respond with relevant information or opinions to questions asked. *Listen to and acknowledge the contributions of others. *Introduce relevant, facilitating information, ideas, and opinions to enrich the discussion.
Goal of this lesson:
Students will understand the components and requirements of a research paper.
I will need: Students will need:
Poem Example Template
List of Questions Two topic worksheets
-Print out Poem Example
-Print out List of Questions
-Copy the two topic worksheets
-Copy Homework Sheet
TSWBAT create a template for a research paper in their notebooks within the class period.
TSWBAT name the components of a research paper within the class period.
TSWBAT discuss the importance of the components and relate them to other pieces of literature.
When given a sample writing, TSWBAT identify the topic sentence within groups.
When given a sample topic, TSWBAT write possible topic sentences within groups.
TSWBAT construct an outline for a research paper for homework, including a sample introduction paragraph, transitions, and conclusion paragraph.
TSWBAT work cooperatively in groups.
We've read many different pieces of literature in this class and discussed different forms of writing, such as poetry, short stories, novels, and essays. But, what about when you need to deliver a bulk amount of factual, in-depth information on one subject? By a show of hands, how many people think that there is a type of writing for that purpose? (Students show hands.) You bet! It is called a research paper. And, although up to this point you haven't been asked to do one, you will be surprised to find out how much you already know about them. Together we are going to create a template for a research paper and discuss what you need to do to write one. (1 minute)
1. I (teacher) will make an outline on the chalkboard and use a short Question and Answer session to help students fill in the template. (15 minutes) **(NOTES FOR QUESTION AND ANSWER PERIOD ARE ATTACHED TO LESSON PLAN.)
Now that we all know the basics of a research paper and all the things that need to be in there, we're going to spend the next few class periods focusing on specific parts. The first step, and sometimes the most difficult, is picking the topic and creating the topic sentence. As we've already discussed the topic is the subject of your paper, or what it's all about. There are countless topics for a research paper, but in this class we're going to focus on Literary Analysis, which will really narrow your choices. Remember, you need to have enough information about your topic to be able to write a paper on it. If you lack factual information, you will be filling your paper with "verbal fluff."
The hardest part, after choosing your subject, is to decide what you want to say about it. The key to getting a good topic sentence for your subject is to know your argument. I could say, "I'm going to write a paper about William Shakespeare." or I could say, "I am going to write a paper about how William Shakespeare's plays changed the theater." The second option actual has an argument.
So, first of all I'm going to pass out some examples of introduction paragraphs for research papers and you're going to identify the topic sentence by either underlining, circling, or highlighting it. Underneath the paragraph, write how you knew it was the topic sentence. The second sheet I am giving you has example topics that could be used for a literary analysis. Based on what we've learned in class, I want you to write a possible topic sentence for each subject. The directions are on both worksheets, so read them carefully. Each person must fill out the worksheets! You will be sharing examples with the class tomorrow, so you really want to finish these worksheets. (I pass out worksheets.) You will work in groups for this project, each row will be a group. Row 1 work in the right, front corner of the room, Row 2 you're in the left, front corner, Row 3 in the middle, Row 4 back, right corner, and Row 5 back, left corner. Go ahead and move. (Students move into groups.)
2. Student work in groups identifying, creating and discussing topic sentences. (15 minutes.)
Listen up! If you have not completed your worksheets in the group, I want you to take them home and do them for homework. Please move back to your seats so we can finish up and I can pass out the rest of your homework. (Students move back to their seats.) (2 minutes)
3. We will review the research paper template. I will call on students individually to name the component I am pointing to on the template. (4 minutes)
4. I pass out homework assignment. Students ask questions about the lesson or assignments.
(IF TIME PERMITS: I will ask a few review questions concerning topics and topic sentences.
- What do need to make sure about your subject before you write a paper on it?
(There is enough information to write about.)
- What makes a good topic sentence?
(It makes a good argument.)
(Question/Answer Session) This is a diagnostic form of evaluation. Even though they have not done a research paper yet, I will be able to gauge how much help they will need with organization based on their answers to the questions.
(Developmental Activity #2) This is a formative evaluation. As I walk around the class, I will be able to see if students are having difficulty with the worksheets. I can evaluate their each student's participation in the group to see who is catching on and who may need more explanations.
(Developmental Activity #3) This is a summative evaluation because we are reviewing a concept we covered earlier in class. We will review the research paper template. I will call on students individually to name the component I am pointing to on the template.
(Developmental Activity #4) I pass out homework assignment. Students ask questions about the lesson or assignments.
***all information about research papers is from The Bedford Handbook, 5th Edition by Diana Hacker.
Margins- between 1 inch and 1 and � inches
Spacing- double spaced
Identification- Name, Instructor's Name, the Course Name, Date
Title- Centered, Title Case
Indentation- � inch, 5 spaces
Introduction- Thesis or topic sentence
Transitions- First, Next, To continue
Conclusion- summary of ideas presented
*Show example of poem and ask for the two things that make up poem.
1. Here is a poem, a piece of literature that you have already worked with this year. Think back to poetry and tell me the two important aspects of this poem. Raise your hand once you know one.
--If you're having trouble recalling, think what pops at you. What would you call the set up of this poem? (FORM)
2. Ok, if form is one part of this poem, what's the second part?
--What would you call what the poem is all about, or what it's trying to tell you? (CONTENT)
Form and content, things you already know about, are the same two things that you need to focus on for a good research paper, but the requirements are different. Now, we're going to use the template I gave you to put together all the components of form that you will need to know to organize your paper.
3. The paper you have is blank other than some lines, but I'm sure you can help me to fill this in. Let's start with some formatting. What are the spaces around the outside of the pages called? (MARGINS)
--Good, why would you use a margin for a research paper? (TO MAKE IT LOOK PROFESSIONAL AND KEEP IT UNCLUTTERED.)
4. Another formatting option that is very similar to margins occurs between each line of your text. Does anyone know what this is called? (SPACING)
--In what way is the importance of spacing like the importance of margins? (BOTH MAKE IT LOOK PROFESSIONAL AND KEEP IT UNCLUTTERED.)
5. Moving on down, can anyone guess what would go at the top of a paper in these four lines? (HEADING OR NAME, INSTRUCTOR'S NAME, THE COURSE NAME, DATE)
--It may sound silly to ask this, but why is it important to have a heading like this? (EASY TO SEE WHO WROTE IT, WHEN IT WAS WRITTEN, AND FOR WHAT CLASS IT WAS WRITTEN)
6. Alright, on we go. If you look under the heading area of your template there is a line that is centered? What do you think this line would be? I'll give you a hint: almost all pieces of literature have this.
--If you're not sure, remember our poem example. What is at the top of a poem? (TITLE)
--Why put a title on a research paper? (SO THE READER KNOWS WHAT THE PAPER IS ARGUING)
7. As we move into the body of the text, you can see that there is a slight difference between the position of the first line of the paragraph and the rest of the paragraph. What is this extra spacing at the beginning of the paragraph called? (Indentation)
--Now, think about what we said concerning margins and spacing. Indentation is also used to keep the paper looking professional and uncluttered, but it also has another purpose.
When you're writing why do you indent a paragraph? (TO SHOW THAT YOU'VE MOVED ON TO A NEW IDEA.)
8. Ok, after all that naming and discussing, we're still only at the beginning of your text. I know you haven't learned this yet, but can anyone give a guess on what the first paragraph of a research paper would be called? It is the same as the first paragraph of a book report. (INTRODUCTION)
--Good, what's the purpose of an introduction? Meaning, what should it do? (TELL WHAT THE PAPER IS ABOUT)
--Obviously, why would you want to do this in the first paragraph of your paper? It's the same reason you have a title (SO THE READER KNOWS WHAT YOU'RE ARGUING)
9. As you write your paper, you're going to indent your paragraphs to start new ideas, but there's also another way to show that you are switching ideas, it is called transitioning. Transition words show order and change. For example, I might say "When I got up this morning I did many things. First, I ate breakfast. Second, I picked out clothes. Lastly, I brushed my teeth. Can someone please tell me what the transition words were in that story?
--Exactly, will someone else give me some other examples of transition words?
10. Finally, you make it to the end of the body of the paper. There is final paragraph or an ending. What's another word for an ending? (CONCLUSION)
--What do you think the conclusion should do? (SUMMARIZE MAIN POINTS AND THESIS)
11. There is one very important page that will end your research paper. You haven't had to do one of these yet, so I will tell you it is called a WORKS CITED page. The title of the page will say WORKS CITED. Now, what does the title WORKS CITED make you think will be on that page? (WORKS THAT YOU USED IN THE DOCUMENT FOR INFORMATION)
--By a show of hands, how many of you have heard the word plagiarism?
--Would one of you please explain to the class what plagiarism is? (COPYING SOMEONE'S WORK AND NOT GIVING THEM CREDIT FOR IT)
12. The final step of your research paper is to add headers with your name and page number to the top of each page like you've already done for your book reports.
Now you have a complete template for writing your paper. At the beginning of class we said that there were two aspects of a research paper. We just discussed form. What was the other one? (CONTENT) Exactly, we will be discussing content tomorrow. Also, I will be helping you to learn how to choose a good topic.
There are three things every teacher should do before taking their students to the computer lab to research information for their research papers: teach the difference between reliable and unreliable sources, check to make sure every student has a self-generated research question, and help prepare students with key phrases and words to search.
Whenever I begin teaching the research paper, I always share with my students the story of how I wrote my Master's thesis paper. It was a 50 page paper with 50 different sources.
I don't do this to toot my own horn. I don't do this to scare my students away from post-secondary education. I don't do this to make the students feel like their research assignment is petty and small. I do this so that I can explain the process of research to them and so that they know I was once in their shoes.
So how exactly do you write a 50-page research paper that has 50 unique, credible sources? One source at a time.
Try my Argument Research Paper Outline
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Find Credible Sources
When teaching the research paper to my secondary ELA students, I first show them about research and credible sources. Before students can even begin looking for their sources, they have to know how to distinguish between reliable and unreliable sources. Being able to do so is the first step in finding a reliable source.
As a rule of thumb, I prefer that my students only use .org, .gov, and .edu sources. I tell them they can use .com sources, but that they have to get my approval first. I also tell my students about Google Scholar and ERIC. Those are both free databases that students can use to find reliable resources.
Once I feel my students have a firm understanding of the sources they will be looking at, we then dive into the research topic, and the students select their issues related to the main topic.
One of the critical parts of teaching the research paper to students is having them come up with their self-generated research question. To do this, I encourage students to work collaboratively and talk about their research topics. They can work in small groups to see what their peers would like to know about that matter. Working in small groups first provides extra support for EL and struggling students. From there, students come up with their question to answer. There is also a graphic organizer in myResearch Paper Writing resource that is especially helpful during this process.
Brainstorm Key Words
Once students have a self-generated question, it is time to get students to think about keywords and phrases they will use in their search for sources. All too often I see students typing precise, wordy questions into a search engine. This only creates frustration for the students as well as the teacher. Taking half a class to discuss keywords and phrases helps students tremendously, and it even speeds up the research process because students can find credible sources a lot easier. When teaching keywords and phrases to my students, I encourage them to type no more than four words into the search engine. I tell them that they must think of the most important words directly related to their topic.
To help students think about keywords and phrases they can use in the search engine, have them think about hashtags for their research topic. This fun, easy, and engaging strategy will get students thinking about what to research and what is explicitly related to their subject.
This blog post is the first post in a series about teaching students about research writing.
If you are interested in teaching the research paper to your students, check out my Research Paper Writing lesson. This lesson includes an editable PowerPoint presentation, a research paper assignment, and everything you will need to work on the entire research paper writing process with your secondary students.
Read more about research in the classroom with Part 2 which covers research paper topics and Part 3 which includes using Google Apps for research.