The Role of the Bourgeoisie in the Sandinista Revolution
Though Karl Marx is known primarily for his criticisms of capitalism, he developed another theory about the progression towards social justice through a series of revolutions that would eventually lead to the “end of history”. In the case of Nicaragua’s revolution in 1979, many of the revolutionary leaders of the Sandinista National Liberation Front were influenced by this sort of Marxist-Leninist thought after having spent a considerable amount of time in communist Cuba. However, due to Nicaragua’s unique situation, the FSLN chose to downplay their aims instead of promoting their socialist ideals in order to gain widespread acceptance of the Nicaraguan people, thus creating a powerful multiclass alliance. By the final months of the revolution, students, intellectuals, labour unions, peasants and bourgeoisie united and worked together despite differences in order to remove the corrupt Somoza family from power.
However, following the end of this regime, the FSLN faced a new series of problems due to the competing class interests of its supporters. For instance, the socialist aims of redistributing land to poor peasant workers clashed with the capitalist’s interests because they owned much of that land. Nonetheless, the FSLN had to find common ground between the two major classes. The bourgeoisie’s interests could not be ignored given the state of severe economic crisis and foreign aggression in the country. This meant that the government was dependent on the bourgeoisie to revive the economy and to gain international credibility to profit from foreign loans and reduce external pressure.
My thesis will touch upon the subject of bourgeoisie in the new Nicaraguan regime. I will argue that the bourgeoisie’s involvement in the revolutionary process within Nicaragua has been and continues to be a crucial asset for its success. Their interests, therefore, cannot be ignored even though they may seem to contradict many of the FSLN’s socialist goals. Their party cannot retain strictly socialist policies, as some factions of their group believe, if they wish to succeed. The FSLN must be willing to negotiate their initial goals and compromise. If not, their leadership will fail as the bourgoisie, international community and more politically moderate and alienated Nicaraguans will rebel and establish yet again a new social order. To support my argument, I plan to explore the reasons behind why the bourgeoisie supported the FSLN, even though it meant overthrowing a capitalist system in which they were capitalists in exchange for a new order that would deny them the same privileges. I will also examine the current situation and adaptations to the economy that have been made to suit the bourgeoisie as well as critically analyze how the FSLN is supposedly keeping a significant role for the private sector while remaining centered on the interests of the lower classes.
Conroy, Michael E. “False Polarisation? Differing Perspectives on the Economic
Strategies of Post-Revolutionary Nicaragua.” Third World Quarterly 6.4
(1984): 993-1032. JSTOR. Web. 9 Feb. 2010.
In the article, Conroy argues that “there exists a false polarisation of the Nicaraguan experience, designed to delegitimise it in the eyes of those who have limited access to information” (994). Hence, the author’s main focus is on Nicaragua’s series of economic policies unique to its situation which have made it difficult to associate the country with a specific ideology. As a result, Conroy points out that Nicaragua has come under criticism from both the left and the right. Conroy believes that Nicaragua has instead chosen a “third road” combining different aspects from various ideologies; nonetheless, external powers such as the United States continue to identify the country with Marxist tendencies and view it as a threat. Conroy claims that the perceived polarization is contradictory because, ironically, much of the policies currently in place that the United States are criticizing so severely have been endorsed by them at one point or another in the past. Though this article is a long read, selected parts of it will help me relate the economic situation in Nicaragua to the demands of the bourgeoisie. Futhermore, it will help clarify the existing opposition to Nicaragua’s revolutionary government in order to help explain why the country is in such a vulnerable state.
Harris, Richard L. “The Revolutionary Transformation of Nicaragua.” Latin
American Perspectives. 14.1 (1987): 3-18. JSTOR. Web. 9 Feb. 2010.
This article focuses on issues in the new Nicaraguan regime by exploring the conditions and demands of various classes. However, Harris recognizes that the government must first and foremost deal with U.S. aggression before proceding to focus on other pressing social, economic and political issues; this has made economic recovery and the revolutionary process all the more difficult to acheive. Nonetheless, Harris argues that the government has made many positive transformations in Nicaraguan society and which have in turn provoked new forms of class struggle and need for new transformations. The images and subtitles in this article make it an easy read. It will help lay the foundation for my argument by broadening my understanding of the changes in various class relationships since the revolution.
Judson, Fred. “Sandinista Revolutionary Morale.” On the Revolutionary
Transformation of Nicaragua 14.1 (1987): 19-42. JSTOR. Web. 9 Feb. 2010.
This article focus on Marx’s concept of the subjective, arguing that “the consciousnesses of human beings acting in history is as necessary as are objective conditions in a revolutionary process” (19). Judson emphasizes the importance of revolutionary morale in the Nicaraguan revolution, especially in light of U.S. aggression. He believes that reason alone does not suffice to ensure the participation and commitment of the population; there must be a nonrational, emotional component to revolutionary morale which is both powerful and necessary to endure the sacrifices and suffering in the proces. This concept is particularly interesting when applied to the bourgeoisie in Nicaragua who decidedly devoted themselves to the revolution following the assassination of La Prensa editor Pedro Joaquin Chamorro. Terminology is well expressed in this article and definitions are repeated throughout for additional clarity.
Leogrande, William M. “Making the Economy Scream: US Economic Sanctions
against Sandinista Nicaragua.” Third World Quarterly 17.2 (1996): 329-348.
JSTOR. Web. 9 Feb. 2010.
This article discusses the level of efficacy of the various measures undertaken by the U.S. government in their longstanding campain to destabilize the Sandinistas in Nicaragua. The author contends that economic sanctions have proven to be highly effective, perhaps even more so than paramilitary engagement. He supports his argument by comparing overt and covert support for the counterrevolutionary Contras in Nicaragua with the costs of war combined with the imposition of economic sanctions to show which of the two played a more important role leading up to to the Sandinista defeat in the 1990 elections. Leogrande uses tables, graphs and statistics to illustrate his views and contest other analyses. This source sheds some light on Nicaragua’s economic crisis and therefore helps illustrate the state’s reliance on the bourgeoisie.
Nori, Pamela J. The Nicaraguan Revolution: A State-Centered Explanation. Ontario:
Simon Fraser University, 1985. Web. 9 Feb. 2010.
This essay provides an in-depth analysis of the Nicaraguan revolution and discusses the contributing factors, both internal and external, which led to the overthrow of the Somoza regime in 1979. Nori’s explanation describes the historical context dating as far back as the turn of the twentieth century. However, her focus is on the relations between the state and the upper classes. She examines various theories by other scholars which seek to explain what led to a multi-class alliance, that which made them willing to set aside their differences to attain a common goal. This source will help me illustrate the unique position of the bourgeoisie in Nicaraguan society which eventually led it to join the revolutionary process. “The psychological theories of revolution”, “the Marxist approaches”, “the weakening support for the regime” and “the upper class opposition” parts of her paper are of particular interest and relevance to my thesis.
Sholk, Richard. “The National Bourgeoisie in Post-Revolutionary Nicaragua.”
Comparative Politics 16.3 (2003): 253-276. JSTOR. Web. 9 Feb. 2010.
This article focuses on class contradictions in the new Nicaraguan regime while the FSLN attempts to overcome these differences and maintain popular support from both the public and private sectors. Sholk demonstrates how the government is indeniably dependent on the bourgeoisie and acquiese to some of its demands while remaining true to its promise of helping establish a better situation for the poor majority. Moreover, the article mentions that external threats make the balance between the public and private sectors even more fragile than it already is and relations with the state more strained. As a result, Sholk postulates that the ongoing tension between the state and the bourgeoisie may be unworkable because of their fundamentally conflicting ideals. The article’s discussion of bourgeoisie will help me draw links the current state of affairs in the country.
How to Write a Paper Topic Proposal & Thesis Statement
• PART 1 OF THE ASSIGNMENT: PAPER TOPIC PROPOSAL
The formal research paper or honors thesis will provide you with an opportunity to more fully develop the background and implications of one of the topics presented during the semester or explore a related topic not covered. Your paper topic proposal requires research in order to make your proposal as close to your paper topic as possible. I strongly suggest you come to office hours to discuss your topic proposal with me, because I will review all proposals for viability and reject any inappropriate or undoable topics.
The written proposal must include the following 2 things:
1. Your proposed paper topic: This part of the proposal is one sentence. Keep your paper topic narrow (but not so narrow that there are no scholarly sources available on the topic).
2. Why the topic is interesting and important: Address how you will focus the topic. If you choose a topic that is not of interest to you, it will show in your paper. This topic must remain of interest to you for two semesters, so give it some serious consideration. As we cover topics in class, undoubtedly something will come up that you want to learn more about. This would be an ideal paper topic. This part of the assignment requires that you include two to three paragraphs about why this topic is interesting and important. Why should the reader care about Roger Williams’s relationship with the Narragansett Indians? If you simply retell the story of his exile from Massachusetts and what he thought of the Narragansett religious beliefs and practices, that’s a book report, not an honors level research paper. However, if you explore the significance Narragansett religion had on Williams, his writings, and his life, you have the makings of an interesting and important research paper. It would require research pertaining to the role of missionaries in the American colonies, research of the Puritan philosophy and why Williams was banned from Massachusetts Bay Colony, and research of Narragansett beliefs and religious views and how they were impacted by the English and Dutch.
What should your paper topic be? Select a course-related topic. I suggest you write about an area that most interests you and in which you might already have some background knowledge. What do you want to learn more about? What are you interested in? Avoid choosing a topic that bores you. Sustained interest in your topic is important, as a topic that bores you makes for a boring paper. It is unlikely you will be able to fool the reader into believing you liked a topic that you didn’t actually like.
Now, narrow down your topic: Once you’ve chosen a topic, ask yourself if it’s narrow enough for you to tackle in the paper or honors thesis you will be writing. Narrow topics generally result in the best papers. One important consideration is the availability of material. Therefore, before making a final decision on your topic, do some initial research to find out the type, quality, and quantity of information available. Finally, how much time do you have to write your paper? The earlier you begin your paper, the more thorough the treatment your topic will receive. If you can’t begin your paper early in the semester, consider limiting your topic so you can deal with it adequately.
• PART 2 OF THE ASSIGNMENT: THESIS STATEMENT
What is a thesis statement? A thesis statement is “a proposition stated as a conclusion which you will then demonstrate or ‘prove’ in your paper.” It is the focal point around which your research will revolve. It is usually stated in the form of an assertion or statement you resolve through your research. It’s not a question; it’s an answer, such as:
“Key decisions in large U.S. cities are made by a handful of individuals, drawn largely from business, industrial, and municipal circles, who occupy the top of the power hierarchy.”
“Cigarette smoking harms the body by constricting the blood vessels, accelerating the heartbeat, paralyzing the cilia in the bronchial tubes, and activating excessive gastric secretions in the stomach.”
A thesis takes a position on an issue. Because you must take a position or develop a claim about a subject, you need to convey that position or claim in a thesis statement in your research paper. It is different from a topic sentence in that a thesis statement is not neutral. It announces, in addition to the topic, the argument you want to make or the point you want to prove. This is your own opinion that you intend to back up. This is your reason and motivation for writing. A thesis statement:
i) tells the reader how you will interpret the significance of the subject matter under discussion.
ii) is a road map for the paper; in other words, it tells the reader what to expect from the rest of the paper.
iii) directly answers the question asked of you. A thesis is an interpretation of a question or subject, not the subject itself. The subject, or topic, of an essay might be World War II or Moby Dick; a thesis must then offer a way to understand the war or the novel.
iv) makes a claim that others might dispute.
v) is usually a single sentence somewhere in your first paragraph that presents your argument to the reader. The rest of the paper, the body of the essay, gathers and organizes evidence that will persuade the reader of the logic of your interpretation. After you have done some preliminary research and reading on your narrowed-down topic, you should formulate a single-sentence thesis statement.
Writing in college often takes the form of persuasion – convincing others that you have an interesting, logical point of view on the subject you are studying. Persuasion is a skill you practice regularly in your daily life. You persuade your roommate to clean up, your parents to let you borrow the car, your friend to vote for your favorite candidate or policy. In college, course assignments often ask you to make a persuasive case in writing. You are asked to convince your reader of your point of view. This form of persuasion, often called academic argument, follows a predictable pattern in writing. After a brief introduction of your topic, you state your point of view on the topic directly and often in one sentence. This sentence is the thesis statement, and it serves as a summary of the argument you’ll make in the rest of your paper.
What is the purpose of the thesis statement? The thesis statement guides you, enabling you to focus your research paper and outline what you will write. It allows you to clarify your thinking and determine what is relevant and irrelevant as you do your research. Your research paper must be thesis-driven. A high school level “report” will not receive a passing grade. The thesis must pull together the analysis that follows. Your thesis statement must be specific – it should cover only what you will discuss in your research paper and must be supported with specific evidence. The thesis statement usually appears at the end of the first paragraph of a paper. Early in your paper I should be able to locate the thesis statement. If I ask you “Where is the thesis statement?” you should be able to point to it immediately.
How do you come up with a thesis statement? A thesis is the result of a lengthy thinking process and careful deliberation after preliminary research. Formulating a thesis is not the first thing you do after reading a writing assignment. Before you develop an argument on any topic, you have to collect and organize evidence, look for possible relationships between known facts (such as surprising contrasts or similarities), and think about the significance of these relationships. Once you do this thinking, you will probably have a “working thesis,” a basic main idea, an argument that you think you can support with evidence but that may need adjustment along the way. Your topic may change somewhat as you write, so you may need to revise your thesis statement to reflect exactly what you have discussed in the paper.
Thesis Statement Samples:
1) The non-thesis thesis: You must take a stand or you’ll end up with a “non-thesis thesis.”
a) Bad Thesis 1: In his article, Stanley Fish shows that we don’t really have the right to free speech.
b) Bad Thesis 2: This paper will consider the advantages and disadvantages of certain restrictions on free speech.
c) Better Thesis 1: Stanley Fish’s argument that free speech exists more as a political prize than as a legal reality ignores the fact that even as a political prize it still serves the social end of creating a general cultural atmosphere of tolerance that may ultimately promote free speech in our nation just as effectively as any binding law.
d) Better Thesis 2: Even though there may be considerable advantages to restricting hate speech, the possibility of chilling open dialogue on crucial racial issues is too great and too high a price to pay.
2) The overly broad thesis: A thesis should be as specific as possible, and it should be tailored to reflect the scope of the paper. It is not possible, for instance, to write about the history of English literature in a five-page paper. In addition to choosing simply a smaller topic, strategies to narrow a thesis include specifying a method or perspective or delineating certain limits.
a) Bad Thesis 1: There should be no restrictions on the First Amendment.
b) Bad Thesis 2: The government has the right to limit free speech.
c) Better Thesis 1: There should be no restrictions on the First Amendment if those restrictions are intended merely to protect individuals from unspecified or otherwise unquantifiable or unverifiable “emotional distress.”
d) Better Thesis 2: The government has the right to limit free speech in cases of overtly racist or sexist language because our failure to address such abuses would effectively suggest that our society condones such ignorant and hateful views.
3) The incontestable thesis: A thesis must be arguable. And in order for it to be arguable, it must present a view that someone might reasonably contest. Sometimes a thesis ultimately says, “people should be good,” or “bad things are bad.” Such thesis statements are redundant or so universally accepted that there is no need to prove the point.
a) Bad Thesis 1: Although we have the right to say what we want, we should avoid hurting other people’s feelings.
b) Bad Thesis 2: There are always alternatives to using racist speech.
c) Better Thesis 1: If we can accept that emotional injuries can be just as painful as physical ones we should limit speech that may hurt people’s feelings in ways similar to the way we limit speech that may lead directly to bodily harm.
d) Better Thesis 2: The “fighting words” exception to free speech is not legitimate because it wrongly considers speech as an action.
4) The “list essay” thesis: A good argumentative thesis provides not only a position on an issue but also suggests the structure of the paper. The thesis should allow the reader to imagine and anticipate the flow of the paper, in which a sequence of points logically proves the essay’s main assertion. A list essay provides no such structure, so that different points and paragraphs appear arbitrary with no logical connection to one another.
a) Bad Thesis 1: There are many reasons we need to limit hate speech.
b) Bad Thesis 2: Some of the arguments in favor of regulating pornography are persuasive.
c) Better Thesis 1: Among the many reasons we need to limit hate speech the most compelling ones all refer to our history of discrimination and prejudice, and it is, ultimately, for the purpose of trying to repair our troubled racial society that we need hate speech legislation.
d) Better Thesis 2: Some of the arguments in favor of regulating pornography are persuasive because they ask pornography proponents to ask themselves whether such a profession would be on a list of professions they would desire for their daughters or mothers.
5) The research paper thesis: In another course this would be acceptable, and, in fact, possibly even desirable. But in this kind of course, a thesis statement that makes a factual claim that can be verified only with scientific, sociological, psychological, or other kind of experimental evidence is not appropriate. You need to construct a thesis that you are prepared to prove using the tools you have available, without having to consult the world’s leading expert on the issue to provide you with a definitive judgment.
a) Bad Thesis 1: Americans today are not prepared to give up on the concept of free speech.
b) Bad Thesis 2: Hate speech can cause emotional pain and suffering in victims just as intense as physical battery.
c) Better Thesis 1: Whether or not the cultural concept of free speech bears any relation to the reality of 1st amendment legislation and jurisprudence, its continuing social function as a promoter of tolerance and intellectual exchange trumps the call for politicization (according to Fish’s agenda) of the term.
d) Better Thesis 2: The various arguments against the regulation of hate speech depend on the unspoken and unexamined assumption that emotional pain is trivial.
How do I know if my thesis is strong? If there’s time, run it by a professor or make an appointment at the Writing Center to get some feedback (http://www.umass.edu/writingcenter/index.html). Even if you do not have time to get advice elsewhere, you can do some thesis evaluation of your own. When reviewing your first draft of your working thesis, ask yourself the following:
1) Do I answer the question? Re-reading the question prompt after constructing a working thesis can help you fix an argument that misses the focus of the question.
2) Have I taken a position that others might challenge or oppose? If your thesis simply states facts that no one would, or even could, disagree with, it’s possible that you are simply providing a summary, rather than making an argument.
3) Is my thesis statement specific enough? Thesis statements that are too vague often do not have a strong argument. If your thesis contains words like “good” or “successful,” see if you could be more specific: why is something “good”; what specifically makes something “successful”?
4) Does my thesis pass the “So what?” test? If a reader’s first response is, “So what?” then you need to clarify, to forge a relationship, or to connect to a larger issue.
5) Does my essay support my thesis specifically and without wandering? If your thesis and the body of your essay do not seem to go together, one of them has to change. It’s okay to change your working thesis to reflect things you have figured out in the course of writing your paper. Remember, always reassess and revise your writing as necessary.
6) Does my thesis pass the “how and why?” test? If a reader’s first response is “how?” or “why?” your thesis may be too open-ended and lack guidance for the reader. See what you can add to give the reader a better take on your position right from the beginning.
Jane M. Smith
[Date] Paper Topic Proposal and Thesis Statement
Proposed paper topic: [One sentence.] Why the topic is interesting and important: [Two to three paragraphs.] See details above on what is required of this section.
Thesis statement: [One sentence.]